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Olmec Jade Celt in the Form of a Were-Jaguar - SP.564 (LSO)
Origin: Mexico
Circa: 900 BC to 500 BC
Dimensions: 11.5" (29.2cm) high
Collection: Pre-Columbian
Style: Olmec
Medium: Jade

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The Olmecs are generally considered to be the ultimate ancestor of all subsequent Mesoamerican civilisations. Thriving between about 1200 and 400 BC, their base was the tropical lowlands of south central Mexico, an area characterized by swamps punctuated by low hill ridges and volcanoes. Here the Olmecs practiced advanced farming techniques and constructed permanent settlements, including San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, La Venta, Tres Zapotes, Laguna de los Cerros, and La Mojarra. However, the consolidation of their city-states led to notable cultural influence far beyond their heartland, and throughout the Mesoamerican region. This was confirmed in 2005 with the use of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) and petrography to demonstrate the spread of Olmec ceramic vessels. It would appear that the Olmec style became synonymous with elite status in other (predominantly highland) groups, with evidence for exchange of artefacts in both directions. A non-literate group, the Olmecs nevertheless paved the way for the development of writing systems in the loosely defined Epi- Olmec period (c. 500 BC). Further innovations include arguably the first use of the zero, so instrumental in the Maya long count vigesimal calendrical system. They also appear to have been the originators of the famous Mesoamerican ballgame so prevalent among later cultures in the region, and either retained or invented several religious symbols such as the feathered serpent and the rain spirit, which persisted in subsequent and related cultures until the middle ages.

Comparatively little is known of their magico- religious world, although the clues that we have are tantalising. The art forms for which the Olmecs are best known, the monumental stone heads weighing up to forty tons, are generally assumed to pertain to some form of kingly leader or possibly an ancestor. The smaller jade figures and celts of which this is one are believed to be domestically or institutionally based totems or divinities. The quality of production is astonishing, particularly if one considers the technology available for production, the early date of the pieces, and the dearth of earlier works upon which the Olmec sculptors could draw. Some pieces are highly stylised, while others demonstrate striking naturalism with interpretation of some facial features (notably down-turned mouths and slit eyes) that can be clearly seen in the current figure.

This celt is typical of the were-jaguar style. It possesses a broad head that is almost as wide as the body, with large deflected lips, small almond-shaped eyes and a laterally-indented nose that flares in from the forehead and joins the upper lip. The small, rectangular ears project laterally from the sides of the head. The neck is represented by an incision, joining the head to a flat body with the arms – the hands holding a device that resembles a sacrificial axe – carved in low relief. The impressions of limbs and digits etc are carved with great economy yet great freedom of expression. The legs are indicated by a single line that divides the bottom one third of the figure. The rear of the figure is smoothed, with the backs of the arms and the neck appearing as incised lines. Were-jaguar figures have been so named because they are believed to represent a shamanic transition between anthropomorphic and zoomorphic form. The owner of the piece is also likely to have been involved in the magico-religious world – this may have been some form of insignia or power object. The polish of the celt indicates that it saw long use, and may have been interred with some notable personage. The marks do not suggest that it was ever used in anger, or bound to a wooden handle. It is therefore a religious, ceremonial item with as great an importance then as it has beauty now. - (SP.564 (LSO))

 

 

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